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Rusk YYY, Dean Rusk interviewed by Richard Rusk, Thomas Schoenbaum, and Bob Clute, Part 1, 1985 June

Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies, University of Georgia
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00:00:26 - Less developed countries after decolonization

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Partial Transcript: Dean, I believe you were in the Office of Foreign Affairs at the Department of State at the time of the Uniting for Peace Resolution was passed.

Segment Synopsis: Dean Rusk talks about the effects of decolonization on less developed countries, focusing on the relationships of these countries with the U.S. and the states of their economies. He also briefly analyzes different paths less developed countries could take towards development.

Keywords: Cuban Missile Crisis; Third World; U.N. General Assembly; Uniting for Peace Resolution; capital formation; colonial empires; colonialism; modernism; nonaligned nations; underdevelopement

00:09:29 - Effects of colonialism on former colonies' later development

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Partial Transcript: You mentioned the fear of colonialism on the part of the Third World.

Segment Synopsis: Dean Rusk discusses the extent to which colonialism can limit former colonies' development capacity. He illustrates this by analyzing former colonies like the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which lacked trained personnel upon gaining independence.

Keywords: Andrew Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Belgian Congo; DR Congo; Dependency Theory; Neocolonialism; Rockefeller Foundation; World Bank

00:13:25 - Role of the U.S. in providing aid to Africa

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Partial Transcript: Africa didn't have roads.

Segment Synopsis: Dean Rusk describes the minor role the U.S. held in supplying foreign aid to Africa. He explains the disparity in the amount of U.S. versus European aid, in terms of division of labor.

Keywords: Fedahins; U.S. foreign aid; inherited infrastructure; modernism

00:17:43 - Role of Secretary of State as ambassador to the United Nations

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Partial Transcript: Now, I've tried myself to spend a good deal of time with the nonaligned country representatives when I was Secretary of State.

Segment Synopsis: Dean Rusk talks about his commitment as Secretary of State to meet with foreign ambassadors during the United Nations General Assembly. He also discusses the level to which later Secretaries of State followed this example.

Keywords: U.N. General Assembly; U.S. foreign aid; bilateral meetings; government corruption; less developed countries; organized crime

00:22:24 - Importance of education and public health to development

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Partial Transcript: I wonder if I could ask just a couple of follow-up questions to issues that Bob Clute raised.

Segment Synopsis: Rusk shares his view that education and public health are essential for development. He uses his childhood in Cherokee County, Georgia and a visit to a village in India as examples.

Keywords: Rockefeller Foundation; Western values; germ theory of disease; modernism; underdevelopment

00:27:39 - Development of agriculture and university systems in less developed countries

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Partial Transcript: Does the combination of public education, improved agricultural production, and better health necessarily lead to the adoption of Western values?

Segment Synopsis: Dean Rusk talks about the process of increasing agricultural productivity in less developed countries and the role of the Rockefeller Foundation in this development. He also discusses the current (circa 1985) university systems of less developed countries, considering the possibilities for their future growth.

Keywords: American Association of Universities; colonialism; land-grant colleges; land-grant institutions; land-grant universities

00:35:12 - U.S. foreign aid

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Partial Transcript: You know, how much of our third world policy is dictated by economic reasons?

Segment Synopsis: Dean Rusk talks about the motivations behind U.S. foreign aid, including economics, generosity, and security. He also discusses the process of receiving congressional approval for the provision of foreign aid.

Keywords: Marshall Plan; Public Law 480; Third World; industrialization; modernism; underdevelopment

00:44:46 - Critique of counterpart funds / Taxation problems in less developed countries

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Partial Transcript: Well, I'm glad you mentioned the Marshall Plan because, you know, the Marshall Plan required Europe to arrive at an overall plan for development.

Segment Synopsis: Dean Rusk analyzes the benefits and drawbacks of requiring counterpart funds of local currencies for U.S. foreign aid programs. He gives the example of India to show the potential problems with using counterpart funds. Later, he discusses the difficulty some less developed countries face in collecting enough tax revenue.

Keywords: Communism; IRS; Internal Revenue Service; Marshall Plan; Rockefeller Foundation; inflation

00:50:32 - Comparison of U.S. foreign aid under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson / The Alliance for Progress

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Partial Transcript: How would you compare the attitudes of your two presidents on the question of development in Third World countries?

Segment Synopsis: Dean Rusk compares the nature of U.S. foreign aid under the presidencies of Kennedy and Johnson, focusing on the agency of Kennedy and the personal motivation of Johnson. Later, Rusk discusses his role in implementing the Alliance for Progress and the program's effects on Latin America.

Keywords: AID; Agency for International Development; Bureau for Inter-American Affairs; Bureau of Latin American Affairs; less developed countries

00:56:50 - The Peace Corps / Less developed countries' attitude towards work

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Partial Transcript: How were you involved with the creation of the Peace Corps?

Segment Synopsis: Dean Rusk talks about the creation of the Peace Corps and about the program's successes and failures. Later, Rusk analyzes less developed countries' aristocratic view towards work, discussing different means of changing this attitude.

Keywords: CIA; Central Intelligence Agency; Rockefeller Foundation; Third World; civic action programs; land-grant colleges; land-grant institutions; land-grant universities; modernism; underdevelopment