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Rusk HHHH, Dean Rusk interviewed by Richard Rusk and Thomas Schoenbaum, August 6, 1985

Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies, University of Georgia
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00:00:08 - Bombing Japan / The Azerbaijan crisis

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Partial Transcript: This is a tape of the role of Dean Rusk in the organization of the post-World War II world order.

Segment Synopsis: Rusk refutes the claim that President Truman used atomic bombs to keep Soviet Russia out of Japan. He talks about the Azerbaijan crisis (the first case taken before the UN Security Council) claiming that Stalin pulled out of Azerbaijan, Iran, and Berlin because of UN pressure.

Keywords: Ali Hussein Ala; Berlin airlift; Britain; Byrnes; Division of international Security Affairs; General Marshall; George Kennan; George Marshall; Iran; Office of Special Political Affairs; Tehran; UK; UNSC; USSR; United Nations; blockade; communism; demobilization; international opinion; lend-lease deal; military; propaganda

00:10:27 - Powers of the UN Security Council and the General Assembly

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Partial Transcript: Turning to the Marshall Plan...

Segment Synopsis: Rusk talks about the UN's role in maintaining peace and security. He mentions the Uniting for Peace resolution, which gave the General Assembly power to outweigh Soviet vetoes of Security Council resolutions.

Keywords: Foreign Relations; George Marshall; Russia; UN Charter; USSR; United Nations; international security

00:16:53 - U.S. economic leadership after WWII

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Partial Transcript: Another memorandum that was written by Mr. Dean Rusk....

Segment Synopsis: Rusk explains that the UN Economic Commission for Europe could not be used to implement the Marshall Plan or provide recovery-related loans because of Eastern Bloc members' objections. He talks about the formation of the Marshall Plan, wartime aid strategies, and the distribution of UN dues.

Keywords: Britain; Czechoslovakia; Eastern Europe; GNP; George Kennan; Paris; Paul Nitze; Poland; Russia; Truman; UK; United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration; Western Europe; communism; economics; lend-lease

00:25:47 - The Truman Doctrine

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Partial Transcript: We can now turn to Greece and Turkey...

Segment Synopsis: Rusk discusses the Greek guerilla crisis and Yugoslavia's defection from the Warsaw Pact. He considers the importance of his conversations with Soviet UN Representative Andrei Gromyko and British Minister of Foreign Affairs Hector McNeil in forming the Truman Doctrine. Rusk highlights Truman's appeal for Congressional appropriations, which resulted in both the misconception that the Truman Doctrine was universally applicable as well as pressure to provide technical assistance to developing states.

Keywords: Britain; Eastern Bloc; George Kennan; Josip Tito; Russia; Soviet; UK; USSR; communism; isolationism

00:36:22 - UN Special Committee on the Balkans / U.S. action and Article 33 of the UN Charter

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Partial Transcript: Pop, getting back to this memo conversation with Gromyko and that dinner.

Segment Synopsis: Rusk elaborates on his dinner conversation with Gromyko and the later decision for Russia to pull out of Greece. He talks about language in the UN Charter, indirect aggression, and the creation of the UN Special Committee on the Balkans. Rusk discusses disagreement as to the propriety of unilateral, bilateral, and multilateral UN action in Greece and Turkey.

Keywords: Article 33; Europeanism; Greek crisis; NATO; Truman; UN Commission for Greece; UNSCOB; Vandenberg; guerilla; isolationism; liberalism

00:49:18 - "Containment" / The Mr. X article

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Partial Transcript: This is fascinating on all these famous doctrines and events were taking place almost at the same time.

Segment Synopsis: Rusk explains that ideology surrounding the term "containment" became a distraction from practical problems caused by the USSR in Eastern Europe. Rusk disagrees with George Kennan's support for fulfilling Soviet demands as well as his condemnation of the U.S. hydrogen bomb, and he provides further commentary on Kennan's anonymous article in the journal Foreign Affairs.

Keywords: Dean Acheson; George Kennan; John Foster Dulles; Mr. X

00:56:44 - Truman on nuclear weapons / Dissolution of the Greek crisis

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Partial Transcript: There have been some references in various literature that President Truman had threatened the use of atomic weapons.

Segment Synopsis: Rusk argues that President Truman always opposed the use of nuclear weapons. He talks about the Greek crisis (see link about Greek Civil War), mentioning that political instability made it hard for the United States to provide aid.

Keywords: George McGhee; Greece; Joint Chiefs of Staff; Korea; Korean War; Russia; Special Committee on the Balkans; UN; WMD; atomic bomb; communism; strategic doctrine; weapons of mass destruction