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00:00:00 - Introduction

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Segment Synopsis: This is an interview with Richard Carpenter, research associate at the East-West Center in Honolulu, HI. It takes place on April 25, 1985.

00:00:18 - ESA's advisability of establishing TIE / Competition with universities

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Partial Transcript: In the late 1960's, the Ecological Society was conducting a study on the advisability of establishing an institute of ecology

Segment Synopsis: Carpenter describes the ESA's support for developing TIE, and what the new institute's primary purpose would be. He follows with explaining the potential competition between TIE and universities for research funding.

Keywords: ESA; Ecological Society of America; Institution; TIE; The Institute of Ecology; community; funding; membership; policy; research interests; science

00:02:11 - Original objectives / Membership

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Partial Transcript: recall TIE's original objectives

Segment Synopsis: Carpenter discusses TIE's original objectives. He also states although he was a founding member of the assembly, he was strongly against it. Carpenter believed that Rimberg's participation in the matter mucked up the already skewed membership system.

Keywords: Felix Rimberg; TIE; The Institute of Ecology; Trustees; assembly; environmental awareness; founders; founding institutions; link science and policy; membership; policy makers; sponsors

00:07:10 - Valuable network / TIE's financial problem

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Partial Transcript: A valuable network of outstanding ecologists was developed by the Institute

Segment Synopsis: Carpenter explains that the valuable network wasn't very large in size, so it couldn't contribute very much as a network. He follows by commenting on TIE's financial situation, and how TIE really put itself in a hole from the start.

Keywords: Caldwell; Corps. of Engineers; financial problems; funding; network of ecologists; small organization

00:13:24 - Staffing / Research interests

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Partial Transcript: At the beginning the Institute was staffed at the second-level

Segment Synopsis: Carpenter discusses the second-level staff under the director. He says it's not really their background that mattered as long as they could apply their competency, which they didn't.
In terms of research, Carpenter can't really say which topic was most successful, but he believes the projects provided a basis for Congressional testimony.

Keywords: Arthur Hasler; Library of Congress; TIE; The Institute of Ecology; University of Wisconsin; coastal zone problems; decision-making; director; man-in-the-living-environment; second-level; staffing; tropical ecology; urban ecosystems

00:16:23 - IDP research programs / Thoughts on history of TIE

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Partial Transcript: did TIE not develop stronger interdisciplinary research programs

Segment Synopsis: Carpenter talks about why TIE didn't develop stronger interdisciplinary research programs. He adds that there really wasn't an alternative method from the workshop mode.
Carpenter later recalls his overall thoughts on the history of The Institute of Ecology including the factors that kept the field of ecology from maturing in its relationship with government.

Keywords: Academy; Alex Zucker; IBP; IDP research; International Biological Program; Ohio River Basin; Rachel Carson; Trustee; Washington; biological sciences; biology; chemistry; ecologists; environmental quality; government; hard sciences; history; interdisciplinary research; physics; pollution awareness; workshop mode

00:24:37 - Mission behind TIE

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Partial Transcript: the exercise to develop TIE misguided

Segment Synopsis: Carpenter discusses the factors leading to TIE's demise. He additionally suggests methods of what TIE should have done.

Keywords: Stella Leopole; Trustee; assembly; environmentalists; funding; ideological goals; membership; non-ecologists; objective science; self-serving; structure